Folate-related gene polymorphisms as risk factors for cleft lip and cleft palate.
Item Type:Journal Article
Citation:J.L. Mills, A.M. Molloy, A. Parle-McDermott, J.F. Troendle, L.C. Brody, M.R. Conley, C. Cox, F. Pangilinan, D.J. Orr, M. Earley, E. McKiernan, E.C. Lynn, A. Doyle, J.M. Scott, P.N. Kirke., Folate-related gene polymorphisms as risk factors for cleft lip and cleft palate., Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology., 82, 9, 2008, 636 - 643
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BACKGROUND Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and cleft palate only (CPO) have an inherited component and, many studies suggest, a relationship with folate. Attempts to find folate-related genes associated with clefts have, however, often been inconclusive. This study examined four SNPs related to folate metabolism (MTHFR 677 C→T, MTHFR 1298 A→C, MTHFD1 1958 G→A, and TC II 776 C→G) in a large Irish population to clarify their relationship with clefts. METHODS Cases and their parents were recruited from major surgical centers performing cleft repairs in Ireland and a support organization. Data on risk factors, medical history, and DNA were collected. Controls were pregnant women from the greater Dublin area (n = 1,599). RESULTS CLP cases numbered 536 and CPO cases 426 after exclusions. CPO mothers were significantly more likely than controls to be MTHFR 677 TT, OR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.05–2.16; p = .03). Log-linear analysis showed a borderline association (p = .07). Isolated CPO case mothers were significantly more likely than controls to be homozygous for the MTHFD1 1958 G→A variant, OR 1.50 (95%CI: 1.08–2.09; p = .02). When multiple cases were added, both CPO cases and case mothers were significantly more likely to be AA (p = .02 and p = .007, respectively). The CLP case-control and mother-control analyses also showed significant effects, ORs 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05–1.82; p = .03) and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04–1.85; p = .03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Associations were found for both CPO and CLP and MTHFD1 1958 G→A in cases and case mothers. MTHFR 677 C→T could be a maternal risk factor for clefts but the association was not strong. Because multiple comparisons were made, these findings require additional investigation. Given the known association between MTHFD1 1958 G→A and NTDs, these findings should be explored in more detail
Type of material:Journal Article
Series/Report no:Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology.
Availability:Full text available
Keywords:cleft lip, cleft palate, oral clefts, folate, folate genes, vitamin B12, transcobalamin gene
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