Osorio J.P., Farrell E.R., O'Kelly B.C. and McElvaney J., Design approach for improving rampart roads, Young European Arena of Research website, Extended abstract, 2008
Approximately 17% of the land surface of Ireland is covered with peat. However, some counties have significantly higher values, particularly in the midlands and western counties. County Leitrim, for instance, has peat coverage of about 36%. In Ireland, the roads across the peatlands started to be properly developed during the eighteen century to gain commercial and military access to remote rural areas. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries peat was the only fuel most people had. The roads built across the peatlands provided better access and made peat harvesting for fuel easier. Peat harvesting led to a rapid cut away of the peat in the vicinity of the roads leaving the road surface, in some cases, many meters above the surrounding surface, creating what is known in Ireland as rampart roads. There is an urgent need to improve rampart roads in Ireland to meet the modern traffic demands, the safety requirements and to reduce maintenance costs. The roads have to be widened and the quality of the road surface has to be improved. Challenges arise from different sources when improving rampart roads.
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