Wannier-function-based constrained DFT with nonorthogonality-correcting Pulay forces in application to the reorganization effects in graphene-adsorbed pentacene
Item Type:Journal Article
Citation:Roychoudhury, S. and O'Regan, D.D. and Sanvito, S., Wannier-function-based constrained DFT with nonorthogonality-correcting Pulay forces in application to the reorganization effects in graphene-adsorbed pentacene, Physical Review B, 97, 20, 2018, 085303-
PhysRevB.97.205120(4).pdf (PDF) 1.796Mb
Pulay terms arise in the Hellmann-Feynman forces in electronic-structure calculations when one employs a basis set made of localized orbitals that move with their host atoms. If the total energy of the system depends on a subspace population defined in terms of the localized orbitals across multiple atoms, then unconventional Pulay terms will emerge due to the variation of the orbital nonorthogonality with ionic translation. Here, we derive the required exact expressions for such terms, which cannot be eliminated by orbital orthonormalization. We have implemented these corrected ionic forces within the linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) package onetep, and we have used constrained DFT to calculate the reorganization energy of a pentacene molecule adsorbed on a graphene flake. The calculations are performed by including ensemble DFT, corrections for periodic boundary conditions, and empirical Van der Waals interactions. For this system we find that tensorially invariant population analysis yields an adsorbate subspace population that is very close to integer-valued when based upon nonorthogonal Wannier functions, and also but less precisely so when using pseudoatomic functions. Thus, orbitals can provide a very effective population analysis for constrained DFT. Our calculations show that the reorganization energy of the adsorbed pentacene is typically lower than that of pentacene in the gas phase. We attribute this effect to steric hindrance.
Awarded the Karl Wilkinson Prize 2019.
Type of material:Journal Article
Series/Report no:Physical Review B
Availability:Full text available
Keywords:Wannier function methods, Density functional theory, Atomic orbital, Graphene, Organic semiconductors, Photoemission