Identification of a new antinociceptive alkaloid isopropyl N-methylanthranilate from the essential oil of Choisya ternata Kunth
PARNELL, JOHN ADRIAN
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Citation:Niko S. Radulović, Ana B. Miltojević, Michael McDermott, Steve Waldren, John Adrian Parnell, Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro, Patricia Dias Fernandes, Fabio de Sousa Menezes, Identification of a new antinociceptive alkaloid isopropyl N-methylanthranilate from the essential oil of Choisya ternata Kunth, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 135, 3, 2011, 610-619
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Mexican people employed infusion of leaves of Choisya ternata Kunth for their antispasmodic and ?simulative properties? Aim of the study: In the present study the detailed GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil of Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) were performed. The presence of a minor constituent isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (1) was revealed among other identified volatiles. A synthesis of 1 was undertaken in order to corroborate this find and obtain gram quantities that would allow the testing of its biological activity (peripheral and central antinociceptive activity) Material and methods: The oils were investigated by GC and GC-MS. Synthesized compounds were spectrally characterized (UV-Vis, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, MS). The obtained synthetic samples of compounds were assayed for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity in two models (effects on acetic acid induced writhing in mice and the hot plate test for nociception). Results: Detailed GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil of Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) among 157 other identified volatiles revealed the presence of a minor constituent isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (1). Compound 1, named ternanthranin, is therefore detected as a natural product for the first time with a very restricted occurrence (samples of several citrus oils were screened for the presence of 1). The antinociceptive activities were assayed for ternanthtanin, the two other synthetic analogs, methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate, as well as the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of the leaves. The results clearly demonstrate a very high (even significant at 0.3 mg/kg) dose dependent activity for the anthranilates (and the extracts). Isopropyl N-methylanthranilate showed the highest, while methyl N-methylanthranilate showed the lowest activity (with the methyl ester at 3 mg/kg still better than acetylsalicylic acid, at 200 mg/kg, in the first, or comparable with morphine, at 5 mg/kg, in the second test). Conclusion: This study once again revealed that detailed investigations of plant species with ethnopharmacologically documented activity may yield new natural compounds?a new alkaloid (ternanthranin), a volatile simple anthranilate that can be considered responsible for the antinociceptive activity of the crude plant extracts. Keywords: Choisya ternata; essential oil; synthesis; esters of N-methylanthranilic acid; isopropyl N-methylanthranilate; peripheral and central antinociceptive activitie.
Series/Report no:Journal of Ethnopharmacology