O'Hagan, John W. and Waldron, Patrick. 'Estimating the magnitude of tourism in the European Community: data deficiencies and some results'. - Dublin: Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland,Vol. XXV, Pt. IV, 1986/1987, pp89-126
Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland Vol. XXV, Pt. IV, 1986/1987
The main purpose of this paper is to provide estimates of the magnitude of the
contribution of total tourism payments to overall economic activity and
employment in each of the member states of the European Community (EC).
The paper has two subsidiary objectives - to highlight the dearth of reliable
financial data relating to the tourism sector and to outline some important
economic effects of international tourism payments in the EC. The paper is
based on part of a larger study prepared for the Commission of the European
Communities (see O'Hagan, Scott and Waldron, 1986).
The most complete data set relates to international tourism payments and, as
such, it is in relation to this aspect of tourism that most analysis of data is
possible. However, even these data can be very unreliable, especially when
they refer to bilateral tourism flows. Nonetheless, even with the inadequate
data base, it can be demonstrated that international tourism payments do have
important economic effects in the EC. All of these issues are discussed in
The data on international tourism payments do not include payments to
international carriers Information in relation to the latter, in fact, is available
for only two member states. A similar dearth of information exists in relation to
domestic tourism payments. Thus, to arrive at estimates of total tourism
payments (international plus carrier plus domestic) methods for estimating
international carrier payments and domestic tourism payments had to be
developed. These methods, as well as the resulting estimates of the
contribution of total tourism payments to overall economic activity, are
discussed in Section 3.
Section 4 attempts to ascertain the level of employment (direct and indirect)
likely to be associated with this tourism activity. Once again, the estimates
only indicate broad orders of magnitude, but given the available data they
are probably the best that can be provided. Section 5 concludes the paper. The
most comprehensive and useful definition of tourism is the following:
i Tourism travel by a 'tourist', i e a person away from the usual
place of residence ('home') for a holiday, business trip, family
visit, conference or other meeting (scientific, diplomatic,
religious, sporting, etc ), excludes travel regularly undertaken to
places of work or education, e g daily commuters, comprises
- international tourism, travel outside the country of residence
for at least 24 hours,
- national tourism travel within the country of residence
(EUROSTAT 1980, p LVIII)
Tourism payments, as understood in this paper, are all payments associated
with tourism so defined. Tourism employment includes all direct and indirect
employment associated with tourism so defined, but not induced employment.
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