D. O'Dwyer, C. Phelan, Y. Rakovich, P. R. Eastham, J. G. Lunney and J. F. Donegan, Generation of continuously tuneable fractional optical orbital angular momentum using internal conical diffraction, Optics Express, 18, 16, 2010, 16480 16485
Optics Express 18 16
Abstract: When a left-circularly polarised Gaussian light beam, which has
spin angular momentum (SAM) Jsp = σħ = 1ħ per photon, is incident along
one of the optic axes of a slab of biaxial crystal it undergoes internal conical
diffraction and propagates as a hollow cone of light in the crystal. The
emergent beam is a superposition of equal amplitude zero and first order
Bessel like beams. The zero order beam is left-circularly polarised with zero
orbital angular momentum (OAM) Jorb = ℓħ = 0, while the first order beam
is right-circularly polarized but carries OAM of Jorb = 1ħ per photon. Thus,
taken together the two beams have zero SAM and Jorb = ½ħ per photon. In
this paper we examine internal conical diffraction of an elliptically polarised
beam, which has fractional SAM, and demonstrate an all-optical process for
the generation light beams with fractional OAM up to ± 1ħ
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