SHORE AC, BRENNAN OM, EHRICHT R, MONECKE S, SCHWARZ S, SLICKERS P, COLEMAN DC, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE GENE cfr IN PANTON-VALENTINE LEUKOCIDIN-POSITIVE ST8-METHICILLIN-RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus-IVa (USA300), ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, 54, 12, 2010, 4978 - 4984
ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY 54 12
The staphylococcal cfr gene mediates resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A, a phenotype that has been termed PhLOPSA. The cfr gene has mainly been associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from animals, and only a few cfr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been described so far. This study reports the first description of a cfr-positive MRSA isolate (M05/0060) belonging to the pandemic Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type 8 MRSA IVa/USA300 (ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300) clone. The cfr gene was detected in M05/0060 using a DNA microarray which was used to screen PVL-positive MRSA isolates for the presence of virulence genes, typing markers, and antimicrobial resistance genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that M05/0060 exhibited the cfr-associated resistance phenotype. Molecular analysis identified the presence of cfr and a second phenicol resistance gene, fexA, on a novel 45-kb conjugative plasmid, which was designated pSCFS7. Within pSCFS7, a DNA segment consisting of cfr, a truncated copy of insertion sequence IS21-558, and a region with homology to the DNA invertase gene bin3 of transposon Tn552 from Bacillus mycoides was integrated into the transposase gene tnpB of the fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. The emergence of a multidrug-resistant cfr-positive variant of ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300 is alarming and requires ongoing surveillance. Moreover, the identification of a novel conjugative plasmid carrying the cfr gene indicates the ability of cfr to spread to other MRSA strains.
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