J. F. McGilp, L. Carroll and K. Fleischer, Extracting the hysteresis loops of magnetic interfaces from optical second-harmonic intensity measurements, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 19, 2007, 396002/1 - 13
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter; 19;
Surface- and interface-sensitive optical techniques, such as optical second-harmonic generation (SHG), allow the buried interfacial structure of centrosymmetric materials to be explored through thin capping layers, and magnetic SHG (MSHG) extends this to magnetic interfaces. However, the variation of the MSHG intensity with magnetic field does not measure hysteresis loops directly, because the loops are displaced by an amount dependent on the crystallographic response and its phase difference with respect to the magnetic response, and also because there is a quadratic magnetization contribution to the SH intensity that may be significant. Two new procedures are reported for extracting hysteresis loops directly from the MSHG intensity. The first is applicable to all magnetic interfaces, including exchange-biased structures, where the saturation magnetization for positive and negative magnetic fields is equal and opposite. The second applies to all centrosymmetric hysteresis loops. These procedures correct for the quadratic response, allowing experimental geometries to be chosen that maximize the magnetic contribution, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio and the sensitivity of the technique.
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