Khan U, O'Neill A, Lotya M, De S, Coleman JN, High-Concentration Solvent Exfoliation of Graphene., Small, 6, 7, 2010, 864-871
Small; 6; 7;
We demonstrate a method to prepare graphene dispersions at high
concentrations, up to 1.2 mg/ml, with yields of up to 4wt% monolayers. This
process relies on low-power sonication for long times, up to 460 hours. TEM
shows the sonication to reduce the flake size with flake dimensions scaling as
t-1/2. However, the mean flake length remains above 1 mm for all sonication
times studied. Raman spectroscopy shows defects are introduced by the
sonication process. However, detailed analysis suggests that predominately
edge rather then basal-plane defects are introduced. We have used these
dispersions to prepare high quality free-standing graphene films. The
dispersions can be heavily diluted by water without sedimentation or
aggregation. This method facilitates graphene processing for a range of
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