Yanushevskaya, I., Gobl, C. and Ní Chasaide, A., Voice quality and f0 cues for affect expression: implications for synthesis, Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, INTERSPEECH 2005, Lisbon, Sept, 4-8, 2005, 1849 - 1852
Synthesised stimuli were used to investigate how two notionally
separable dimensions of tone-of-voice – voice quality and
fundamental frequency – are involved in the expression of
affect. Listeners were presented with three series of stimuli:
(1) stimuli exemplifying different voice qualities, (2) stimuli
all with modal voice quality but with different affect-related f0
contours, and (3) stimuli incorporating variation in both voice
quality and affect-related f0 contours. A total of 15 stimuli
were rated for 12 different affective attributes. Voice quality
differentiation appears to account for the highest affect ratings
overall, as indicated by the scores obtained for stimuli series
(1) and (3). The relatively weaker affect signalling of stimuli
differentiated by f0 alone corroborates findings in . It also
suggests that for the generation of expressive, affectively
coloured speech synthesis, it is not sufficient to manipulate
only f0; we also need to capture the voice quality dimension
of the voice source.
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