Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids
Item Type:Journal Article
Citation:Paton, K.R. Varrla, E. Backes, C. Smith, R.J. Khan, U. O'Neill, A. Boland, C. Lotya, M. Istrate, O.M. King, P. Higgins, T. Barwich, S. May, P. Puczkarski, P. Ahmed, I. Moebius, M. Pettersson, H. Long, E. Coelho, J. O'Brien, S.E. McGuire, E.K. Sanchez, B.M. Duesberg, G.S. McEvoy, N. Pennycook, T.J. Downing, C. Crossley, A. Nicolosi, V. Coleman, J.N., Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids, Nature materials, 13, 6, 2014, 624-30
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In order to progress from the lab to commercial applications it will be necessary to develop industrially scalable methods to produce large quantities of defect-free graphene. Here we show that high-shear mixing of graphite in suitable, stabilizing liquids results in large-scale exfoliation to give dispersions of graphene nanosheets. XPS and Raman spectroscopy show the exfoliated flakes to be unoxidised and free of basal plane defects. We have developed a simple model which shows exfoliation to occur once the local shear rate exceeds 104 s-1. By fully characterizing the scaling behaviour of the graphene production rate, we show that exfoliation can be achieved in liquid volumes from 100s of ml up to 100s of litres and beyond. The graphene produced by this method performs well in applications from composites to conductive coatings. This method can be applied to exfoliate BN, MoS2 and a range of other layered crystals.
Type of material:Journal Article
Series/Report no:Nature materials
Availability:Full text available