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dc.contributor.authorHENNESSY, MARKen
dc.contributor.authorLUDLOW, FRANCISen
dc.date.accessioned2013-07-10T10:31:37Z
dc.date.available2013-07-10T10:31:37Z
dc.date.issued2013en
dc.date.submitted2013en
dc.identifier.citationFrancis Ludlow, Alexander R Stine, Paul Leahy, Enda Murphy, Paul A Mayewski, David Taylor, James Killen, Michael G L Baillie, Mark Hennessy and Gerard Kiely, Medieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431 - 1649 CE, Environmental Research Letters, 8, 2013, 024035en
dc.identifier.otherYen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2262/66682
dc.descriptionPUBLISHEDen
dc.descriptionMark Hennessy (Joint Author) 1-10 Explosive volcanism resulting in stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol is a major driver of regional to global climatic variability on interannual and longer timescales. However, much of our knowledge of the climatic impact of volcanism derives from the limited number of eruptions that have occurred in the modern period during which meteorological instrumental records are available. We present a uniquely long historical record of severe short-term cold events from Irish chronicles, 431?1649 CE, and test the association between cold event occurrence and explosive volcanism. Thirty eight (79%) of 48 volcanic events identified in the sulfate deposition record of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-core correspond to 37 (54%) of 69 cold events in this 1219 year period. We show this association to be statistically significant at the 99.7% confidence level, revealing both the consistency of response to explosive volcanism for Ireland?s climatically sensitive Northeast Atlantic location and the large proportional contribution of volcanism to historic cold event frequencies here. Our results expose, moreover, the extent to which volcanism has impacted winter-season climate for the region, and can help to further resolve the complex spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere winter-season cooling versus warming after major eruptions.en
dc.description.abstractExplosive volcanism resulting in stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol is a major driver of regional to global climatic variability on interannual and longer timescales. However, much of our knowledge of the climatic impact of volcanism derives from the limited number of eruptions that have occurred in the modern period during which meteorological instrumental records are available. We present a uniquely long historical record of severe short-term cold events from Irish chronicles, 431?1649 CE, and test the association between cold event occurrence and explosive volcanism. Thirty eight (79%) of 48 volcanic events identified in the sulfate deposition record of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-core correspond to 37 (54%) of 69 cold events in this 1219 year period. We show this association to be statistically significant at the 99.7% confidence level, revealing both the consistency of response to explosive volcanism for Ireland?s climatically sensitive Northeast Atlantic location and the large proportional contribution of volcanism to historic cold event frequencies here. Our results expose, moreover, the extent to which volcanism has impacted winter-season climate for the region, and can help to further resolve the complex spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere winter-season cooling versus warming after major eruptionsen
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank Brian ? an Nolan, William Nolan, Michael Mc- Cormick, Bruce Campbell, Arlene Crampsie, Valerie Hall, Andrei Kurbatov, Michael Monk, Daniel McCarthy, Peter Coxon, William J Smyth, Stephen McCarron, David Brown, David Dickson, Poul Holm, Barry O?Dwyer, Michael Sigl, Kees Nooren, Edward R Cook, Gill Plunkett, Chaochao Gao and Alan Robock for discussion of the results and/or the manuscript. Francis Ludlow was funded to undertake part of this work by a Ziff Environmental Fellowship from the Harvard University Center for the Environment, a Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship from the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences, and additional funding from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency?s Climate Change Research Programme (2007/CCRP/2.7?Extreme Weather, Climatic Shifts & Nat- ural Disasters in Ireland). Alexander R Stine was funded to undertake part of this research by a Kernan Brothers Environmental Fellowship from the Harvard University Center for the Environment, and by a National Science Foundation grant (NSF ATM-0902374). Francis Ludlow and Alexander R Stine thank the Harvard Open-Access Publishing Equity (HOPE) Fund for contributing to the open-access article charge. Paul Leahy and Gerard Kiely were funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency?s Climate Change Research Programme (2007/CCRP/2.7). Paul Leahy and Paul A Mayewski thank the Science Foundation Ireland and the Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, respectively, for their contribution to the article charge. We thank the Corpus of Electronic Texts project (ucc.ie/celt) for access to hypertext editions of sources and word counts of the Irish Annals. We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript.en
dc.format.extent024035en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEnvironmental Research Lettersen
dc.relation.ispartofseries8en
dc.rightsYen
dc.subjectvolcano-climate, palaeoclimate, temperature extremes, Ireland, Northeast Atlantic, ice-cores, medieval chroniclesen
dc.subject.lcshvolcano-climate, palaeoclimate, temperature extremes, Ireland, Northeast Atlantic, ice-cores, medieval chroniclesen
dc.titleMedieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431 - 1649 CEen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorNational Science Foundation (NSF)en
dc.contributor.sponsorScience Foundation Ireland (SFI)en
dc.type.supercollectionscholarly_publicationsen
dc.type.supercollectionrefereed_publicationsen
dc.identifier.peoplefinderurlhttp://people.tcd.ie/mhnnessyen
dc.identifier.peoplefinderurlhttp://people.tcd.ie/fludlowen
dc.identifier.rssinternalid86902en
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024035en
dc.contributor.sponsorGrantNumberNSF ATM-0902374en
dc.relation.sourceIrish Annalsen
dc.subject.TCDThemeMaking Irelanden
dc.subject.TCDThemeSmart & Sustainable Planeten
dc.subject.TCDTagAgriculture, settlement and society in medieval Irelanden
dc.subject.TCDTagAnnalsen
dc.subject.TCDTagCLIMATEen
dc.subject.TCDTagCLIMATE CHANGEen
dc.subject.TCDTagCLIMATE-CHANGEen
dc.subject.TCDTagChroniclesen
dc.subject.TCDTagClimate Changeen
dc.subject.TCDTagClimate Change Impacts on the Environmenten
dc.subject.TCDTagClimate Historyen
dc.subject.TCDTagEarly Medieval Historyen
dc.subject.TCDTagGLOBAL CLIMATE-CHANGEen
dc.subject.TCDTagHOLOCENE CLIMATEen
dc.subject.TCDTagIrish Historyen
dc.subject.TCDTagLate Medieval Ireland, 1166-1534en
dc.subject.TCDTagMEDIEVALen
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Historyen
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Historyen
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Irelanden
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Irelanden
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Sourcesen
dc.subject.TCDTagMedieval Studiesen
dc.subject.TCDTagPALAEOCLIMATEen
dc.subject.TCDTagPALEOCLIMATEen
dc.subject.TCDTagVOLCANIC ACTIVITYen
dc.subject.TCDTagVolcanic Aerosolen
dc.subject.TCDTagVolcanic Eruptionsen
dc.subject.TCDTagclimate change impactsen
dc.subject.TCDTagclimate researchen
dc.subject.TCDTagvolcanic dust veilen
dc.identifier.rssurihttp://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024035en
dc.relation.sourceurihttp://www.ucc.ie/celten
dc.status.accessibleNen


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