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dc.contributor.authorGARAVAN, HUGH PATRICKen
dc.contributor.authorMC CABE, ELLAen
dc.date.accessioned2011-04-19T14:22:12Z
dc.date.available2011-04-19T14:22:12Z
dc.date.issued2011en
dc.date.submitted2011en
dc.identifier.citationLiam Nestor, Ella McCabe, Jennifer Jones, Luke Clancy, Hugh Garavan, Differences in "bottom-up" and "top-down" neural activity in current and former cigarette smokers: Evidence for neural substrates which may promote nicotine abstinence through increased cognitive control, NeuroImage, 56, 4, 2011, 2258-2275en
dc.identifier.otherYen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2262/54937
dc.descriptionPUBLISHEDen
dc.description.abstractDrug-related stimuli, through conditioning, are thought to acquire incentive motivational properties that code possible reward availability and elicit an attentional bias, possibly through increased "bottom-up" neural processing. The processes underlying this attentional bias are considered important in the maintenance of addiction, and crucially, in relapse among substance users attempting to remain abstinent. Equally, impaired "top-down" cognitive control may impair the ability to restrain "bottom-up" pre-potent behaviours, such as drug use, following exposure to drug-related stimuli. Two experiments sought to identify the neural loci of bottom-up/top-down processing during fMRI. Experiment 1 utilized an attentional bias paradigm to examine the behavioural and neural responses to neutral, emotionally evocative and smoking-related cues in control (n = 13), ex-smoking (n = 10 - abstinent > 12 months) and smoking (n = 13 - mean > 6.5 years of use) groups. Experiment 2 used a go/no-go paradigm to examine the neural correlates of motor response inhibition and errormonitoring in the same sample. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that, across conditions, current smokers had significantly less neural activity in cortical but significantly more activity in subcortical areas compared to both controls and ex-smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited more neural activity than both control and smoker groups in prefrontal cortical regions. Similarly, Experiment 2 revealed that smokers had reduced neural activity in prefrontal cortical regions during motor response inhibition compared to controls while ex-smokers demonstrated greater neural activity in prefrontal cortical regions compared to both controls and smokers during error monitoring. The results reveal cortical and subcortical differences between current smokers and controls and a general pattern of increased prefrontal cortical activity in ex-smokers. These findings may suggest that elevated topdown control might be an important characteristic of successful abstinence in individuals formerly dependent on nicotine.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by a grant from the Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society (RIFTFS), Dublin, Ireland. The assistance is Ms Sheila Keogan (Research and Communication) and Ms Vanessa Clarke (Corporate Affairs) at RIFTFS is gratefully acknowledged.en
dc.format.extent2258-2275en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesNeuroImageen
dc.relation.ispartofseries56en
dc.relation.ispartofseries4en
dc.rightsYen
dc.subjectNeuroscienceen
dc.subjecttobaccoen
dc.titleDifferences in "bottom-up" and "top-down" neural activity in current and former cigarette smokers: Evidence for neural substrates which may promote nicotine abstinence through increased cognitive controlen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.type.supercollectionscholarly_publicationsen
dc.type.supercollectionrefereed_publicationsen
dc.identifier.peoplefinderurlhttp://people.tcd.ie/garavanhen
dc.identifier.peoplefinderurlhttp://people.tcd.ie/mccabee2en
dc.identifier.rssinternalid72281en
dc.identifier.rssurihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.03.054en


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